• Posts by Tyson C. Redenbarger

    Tyson Redenbarger is a Partner at Cotchett, Pitre & McCarthy LLP practicing in a wide range of civil litigation areas including class actions and complex civil litigation.  In 2022, Tyson was listed by the Daily Journal as one of the ...

Are Initial Coin Offerings (“ICOs”) Securities? Do ICOs have to follow Securities Laws?

Investors who invested in Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) or purchased “digital tokens” may be wondering whether their investment is governed by any laws. Likewise, investors may be wondering if they have any recourse when they expect fraud or the ICO disclosures failed to provide material information.

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Common Cryptocurrency Scams and How to Avoid Them

The first modern cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, took the financial world by storm with its meteoric rise in 2009. As Bitcoin’s value and popularity grew, cryptocurrencies – virtual funds that exist within a decentralized currency system – have steadily gained their place within the modern financial market, despite their high volatility and lack of benchmark for evaluation.

The current market value of one Bitcoin is $6766 US Dollars. Stories of early investors such as Erik Finman, who purchased Bitcoin for $12 US Dollars a coin, motivate many to seek the same success by investing in Bitcoin and new coins alike. In the aftermath of the Bitcoin boom, the frenzy and excitement over these novel investment options have led to the emergence of numerous cryptocurrencies and online exchange platforms.

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It is Illegal for Gift Certificates to Expire

You may be wondering if the value of your old and dusty gift certificate is still valid. In California, it is.

Under California law, it is unlawful to sell a gift certificate to a purchaser that contains an expiration date. See Cal. Civ. Code § 1749.5. Simply put, a gift certificate sold without an expiration date is valid until redeemed or replaced. Cal. Civ. Code § 1749.5(b). A similar federal law prohibits expiration periods shorter than five years. See Electronic Funds Transfer Act (the "EFTA"), 15 U.S.C. § 1693 et seq., and the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act (the "CARD Act"). These laws apply to in-store sales and also to sales on the Internet. These prohibitions also apply to both goods and services.

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